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14-07-2024 18:23

Joaquin Martin

Hi,I found this Ascomycete on horse dung.The spora

13-07-2024 19:50

Zuzana Sochorová (Egertová) Zuzana Sochorová (Egertová)

Hello,I have identified this fungus as Hamatocanth

11-01-2022 16:36

Jason Karakehian Jason Karakehian

Hi does anyone have a digital copy of Raitviir A (

11-07-2024 14:29

Viktorie Halasu Viktorie Halasu

Hello, a thin-fleshed Mollisia on a monocot stem

08-07-2024 23:34

Villalonga Paco

Small Scutellinia growing in garden soil (calcareo

12-07-2024 02:12

Stefan Jakobsson

On a wet lake shore I found a single minute apothe

11-07-2024 10:57

Viktorie Halasu Viktorie Halasu

Hello, I have here a Mollisia on a leaf (possibly

07-07-2024 10:07

Thomas Flammer

I am struggeling with some tiny yellowish apotheci

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Kozak Robert

HelloDate: 2024.06.18, loess gorges, on soil (?)A

11-07-2024 15:05

Thomas Læssøe

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Mitrula sp.
Juuso Äikäs, 17-06-2024 12:00
A couple days ago I found some Mitrula fruitbodies growing in a wet groove with Sphagnum.

Spore measurements:

(13.5) 14.6 - 17.6 (18.1) × (2.8) 3.2 - 4 (4.2) µm
Q = (3.4) 3.9 - 5.3 (5.8) ; N = 20
Me = 15.9 × 3.6 µm ; Qe = 4.5

The old paper The genus Mitrula in North America (1977) doesn't seem to clearly key out this specimen. Either this is M. paludosa or M. borealis. The spore measurements would fit M. borealis slightly better, but the spores didn't appear to have a sheath (fresh spore deposit), which might favour M. paludosa. 

Any opinions?
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Hans-Otto Baral, 17-06-2024 17:03
Hans-Otto Baral
Re : Mitrula sp.
Spore size fits M. paludosa well, e.g. Benkert 1983: 161 gives 12-17 x 2.5-4.5 and Imai 1941: 169 10-18 x 2-4.

Huhtinen 1985: 493 treats M. borealis with spores 11-14 x 3-4.

These data are from my database. Benkert mentioned M. borealis and I assume Huhtinen compares M. paludosa, but I did not look up.

Tell me if you have these papers.
Stefan Jakobsson, 17-06-2024 19:47
Re : Mitrula sp.
I think the key in the 1977 paper is a good way to distinguish between M. borealis and M. paludosa. I have sequenced one of my collections with a spore width better matching M. borealis and the result is clear. In the phylogram it clearly clusters with American borealis sequences - the top one in the phylogram below.

Mitrula borealis seems to be very common in SW Finland, perhaps more so than M. paludosa. Some of my observations are recorded here, but I have many more:

A few weeks ago I collected a Mitrula with spores even broader than borealis according to the Redhead paper. I don't know is it a borealis or still a new one.

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Hans-Otto Baral, 17-06-2024 21:06
Hans-Otto Baral
Re : Mitrula sp.
This sounds interesting. Did you make photos of the sequenced specimen? Is it one in your link?

Can you see any macroscopic or ecological differences?

When you say M. borealis is more frequent you must be able to recognize.
Stefan Jakobsson, 17-06-2024 21:55
Re : Mitrula sp.
I use the Redhead key and the difference is in spore width, according to Redhead (2-)2.5-3.5(-4) µm (paludosa) or (2.5-)3-4(-5) µm (borealis). But I have recorded broader living spores, see image below. All spores I have measured are nonseptate. I have not seen seen septated spore inside asci.

About macroscopic differences I am not sure but the working hypothesis is that borealis is more yellow and perhaps bigger. Paludosa might have more brownish tints in the hymenium and pehaps not so elongated hymenial head as borealis.

Likewise, about ecology I have only a working hypothesis: borealis might be more common in spring fed small streams or pools while paludosa is found in any pool or ditch. All acid, virtually no calacreous sites where I collect.

The sequenced one is this:

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Hans-Otto Baral, 17-06-2024 22:28
Hans-Otto Baral
Re : Mitrula sp.
Thanks. Yes, it might be unclear if redhead measured living or dead spores.

The septa in the spores I suppose occur only when overmature, never inside living asci?

The spore list I cannot read, are these different collections?
Stefan Jakobsson, 17-06-2024 23:22
Re : Mitrula sp.
Yes, only overmature spores are septate. The spore sizes in the prevoius image are all the same as in the observations in the first link in this thread, if you scroll a bit to the right or look at the observation details.
Zuzana Sochorová (Egertová), 18-06-2024 08:03
Zuzana Sochorová (Egertová)
Re : Mitrula sp.
interesting topic! I must admit I have automatically identified all my Czech collections as M. paludosa. In Czech literature, I haven´t found a mention about M. borealis, but I can see that Redhead mentions occurrence in the neighbouring Germany.
I wonder how often is M. borealis collected in this region... 
Yesterday I found Mitrula in the Jeseníky Mts., so I made the first microscopy of it in my life, and it fits better M. paludosa, especially if Redhead worked with dead material. In any case, the are thinner than those in the collections from Finland presented here. Living ascospores measure (13)14.1-18.2(19.2) × (2.8)3-3.6 (3.8) µm, Q = (3.8)4.2-5.6(6.2), n = 40. Me = 15.8 × 3.3 µm; Qe = 4.8. Gelatinous sheath not observed.
Best regards, Zuzana
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Hans-Otto Baral, 18-06-2024 09:33
Hans-Otto Baral
Re : Mitrula sp.
Impressive! What was the substrate, cones? What is the altitude?

When I see at my HB 3044, I got spores *13-15 x 3.8-4.5, partly septate although most asci were immature.

This was from 600 m in the Rifferswilermoos, Zug, CH.

Should be borealis then?
Juuso Äikäs, 18-06-2024 10:18
Re : Mitrula sp.
Thanks for all the replies. Interesting. I don't have the papers now, but I might access them. I have a sample of this drying right now, and perhaps a DNA sequence will be made of it.
Zuzana Sochorová (Egertová), 18-06-2024 14:09
Zuzana Sochorová (Egertová)
Re : Mitrula sp.
My Mitrula grew in a little brook, on detritus of Picea and Acer pseudoplatanus, most often directly on Picea cones. Altitude is 845 m a.s.l.
Juuso Äikäs, 22-06-2024 14:08
Re : Mitrula sp.
For the sake of comparison, here is what is presumably Mitrula paludosa, found a couple days ago from another location. The spore shape is a bit narrower, and the fertile part of the fruitbodies was on average shorter than with the former finding (which is presumably M. borealis).


(17.3) 18.1 - 21.3 (22.9) × (2.8) 3 - 3.5 (3.8) µm
Q = (4.6) 5.4 - 6.7 (6.8) ; N = 20
Me = 19.6 × 3.3 µm ; Qe = 6 
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Hans-Otto Baral, 22-06-2024 16:42
Hans-Otto Baral
Re : Mitrula sp.
My guess would be that both are paluosa despite the spore length difference, but I do not know for sure.